How can we make AI tools work better for clinicians?
We are living in an unprecedented time of health information availability, but it is hard to analyze across many disparate data sources. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) offer an opportunity to parse these datasets. However, how can we can make these insights actionable to people, especially clinicians, who can make decisions to actively improve health based on these AI-supported insights?
In this paper we interviewed 41 clinicians across a variety of roles who can prescribe type two diabetes medications. As we interviewed, we rapidly iterated our prototype Type 2 diabetes medication insight tool. See the linked paper or listen to the video sharing findings. I talk about how to integrate into time-constrained clinical workflows through enabling filtering to empower the clinician to personalize results to best match patient needs. I also share insights regarding how to build clinician trust with AI tools.
Eleanor R. Burgess, Ivana Jankovic, Melissa Austin, Nancy Cai, Adela Kapuścińska, Suzanne T. Currie, J. Marc Overhage, Erika S Poole, and Jofish Kaye. 2023. Healthcare AI Treatment Decision Support: Design Principles to Enhance Clinician Adoption and Trust.
In Proceedings of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’23), April 23–28, 2023, Hamburg, Germany. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 19 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3544548.3581251
Digital Mental Health
Base picture from ADDitude. Remix done by author.
Understanding the impacts of technology on and for managing & coping with depression
Technology has the potential to increase access and support for individuals who lack access to formal mental health care. However, currently available digital tools to support depression management often have low adoption rates. In this work, I, alongside my collaborators, seek to understand the technologies people who are managing depression are currently using and what health routines people are carrying out as part of their day-to-day lives. Using these insights, I show how we can design solutions that support individual's lived experiences and mental health goals.
Eleanor R. Burgess, Madhu C. Reddy, and David C. Mohr. 2022. "I Just Can't Help But Smile Sometimes": Collaborative Self-Management of Depression. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 6, CSCW1, Article 70 (April 2022), 32 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3512917 Link to full paper
Jordan Eschler, Eleanor R. Burgess, Madhu C. Reddy, David C. Mohr. Emergent Self-Regulation Practices in Technology and Social Media Use of Individuals Living with Depression. In 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings (CHI 2020). April 25–30, 2020, Honolulu, HI, USA. ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376773 Link to full paper | Link to blog-post version
Eleanor R. Burgess, Kathryn E. Ringland, Jennifer Nicholas, Ashley A. Knapp, Jordan Eschler, David C. Mohr and Madhu C. Reddy. 2019. “I think people are powerful”: The sociality of individuals managing depression. In Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 3, CSCW, Article 41 (November 2019). 29 pages, https://doi.org/10.1145/3359143. Link to full paper | Link to blog-post version
Eleanor R. Burgess, Liz Kaziunas, Maia Jacobs. 2022. Care Frictions: A Critical Reframing of Patient Noncompliance in Health Technology Design. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact, 6, CSCW2, Article 281 (November 2022), 31 pages, https://doi.org/10.1145/3555172
Reframing "noncompliance" and centering the patient lived experience
Detailing conflicts that emerge when patients are caught between meeting their personal needs and following clinical best practices, we show how everyday life and health system goals are often misaligned in ways that can’t be easily reconciled through current design approaches. As a way forward, we argue for alternative ways of understanding the tensions routinely shaping people’s healthcare experiences. We introduce the term care frictions as a sensitizing concept useful for helping designers reframe “noncompliant” behaviors as legitimate forms of patient work.
Communication Hotspots: How Infrastructure Shapes People's Health
Informed by communication infrastructure theory (CIT) and the social capital approach to health, this study focused on the role played by communication hotspots: physical places in a community (e.g., parks, churches, or restaurants) where health information is shared between network actors. The results suggest that communication hotspots can influence people’s health by facilitating information-sharing activities. In addition, communication hotspots may reduce perceived barriers to healthcare by bringing together diverse network actors.
Eleanor R. Burgess, Nathan Walter, Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach, Sheila T. Murphy. 2019. Communication hotspots: How infrastructure shapes people’s health. Health Communication. Link to full paper
Information Work in Hospital Settings
Both clinicians and patients need to find and use important health
information in their decision-making and day-to-day lives. However, not all
information is directly useful. These papers discuss how individuals use
information in hospital settings and how to improve the delivery and
usefulness of information.
Eleanor R. Burgess, Madhu C. Reddy, Andrew Davenport, Paul
Laboi, Ann Blandford. 2019. “Tricky to get your head around”:
Information Work of People Managing Chronic Kidney Disease.
In 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Proceedings (CHI 2019). May 4-9, 2019, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
ACM Press. Link to full paper
Renwen Zhang, Eleanor R. Burgess, Madhu C. Reddy, Nan E. Rothrock, Surabhi Bhatt, Luke V. Rasmussen, Zeeshan A. Butt, Justin B. Starren. 2019. Provider perspectives on the integration of patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record. Journal of American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA) Open. Link to full paper
Investigation of Care Manager Challenges for Mental Health Care Delivery
Care managers, often with a background in nursing or social work, play an integral role in the process of supporting patients who have mental health care treatment needs. This research, in collaboration with CBITs, uncovered specifics regarding how these professionals participate in mental healthcare delivery and how they communicate with patients, with specific focus on their perceived challenges to delivering care. Through conducting user needs analysis we identified challenges that a technology-enabled clinical service could help solve to support the delivery of mental health care services.
Emily G. Lattie, Eleanor R. Burgess, David C. Mohr, Madhu C. Reddy. 2020. Care Managers and Role Ambiguity: The Challenges of Supporting the Mental Health Needs of Patients with Chronic Conditions. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Link to full paper
Health Behaviors and Information Work
Selected Past HCI Design Projects
FireCrowd: Peer Production of Fire Fighter Safety Information
In emergency response organizations like the fire service, personnel require easy access to reliable, up-to-date safety protocols. Systems for creating and managing safety information known as Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) within these command and control organizations are often rigid, inaccessible, and siloed. Open collaboration systems like wikis and social computing tools have the potential to address these limitations, but have not been analyzed for intra-organizational use in emergency services. We built and evaluated a peer production system to test whether open collaboration of safety information was a feasible process in the fire service. | Read more about the design & the study here | Download the paper here
Sensi-steps: Fall Risk-Tracking Using Passive & Active Sensing in the Home
Together with an interdisciplinary team of colleagues from Northwestern and Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), we took second place in the Student Design Challenge hosted by the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) in November 2017. We proposed a novel tool focused on leveraging Patient Generated Data (PGD) to improve patient care called Sensi-Steps that would allow patients to take regular fall-risk assessments in the safety of their own home and then share that information with their healthcare provider. Read more here
Athletic Audio: Assistive Design for a Young Athlete who uses Hearing Aids
Cheyenne* is a youth with bi-lateral hearing loss. She wears hearing aids in both ears and can hear close to nothing when they are removed. She is extremely active but faces some issues with player-coach communication while playing soccer in windy and loud settings. We designed a solution for her through researching the problem space, prototyping a range of design solutions, and ultimately creating a mock-up of a working product for Cheyenne. | Read more about the design & the study here
In 2017 I co-founded ShareVR. We provided game developers a plug-in third-party camera and avatar creator to enable easy sharing of VR content through videos on player's social media accounts (Facebook, Twitter, etc.). (ShareVR was shut down in January of 2018.)
drfocused (now called Credentially)
In 2016 I co-founded the health technology startup drfocused. We seek to improve doctor's working lives by streamlining and centralizing non-clinical administration.
We follow a collaborative hospital and doctor-centric design process through ongoing engagement with an online community we created called the Doctors' Digital Collective, with a community of close to 1,500 physicians. During Summer 2016, we went through the Techstars London accelerator programme (check out our cohort on TechCrunch).
While I am not currently involved in day-to-day work for the startup, my time at drfocused has shaped my ongoing interest in supporting approaches to economically-viable design in the complex area of healthcare.